Новый год в Замбии: кукурузная качасу, рождественский рис и Санта Клаус в Лусаке

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Замбия – небольшая бедная африканская страна в центре континента, но Новый Год и Рождество приходят и туда. О том, как справляют зимние праздники в этой далекой жаркой стране мне рассказали студенты УрфУ, коренные жители Замбии Чичи Пауль и Юджин Чола.

– В России Новый Год считается семейным праздником. Рождество, видимо, тоже. Хотя оно не так популярно у нас, как на Западе. Для вас какой праздник важнее и рассматриваете ли вы зимние торжества как семейные?

– Большая часть населения Замбии – католики, поэтому Рождество все-таки важнее. В этот день семьи ходят в церковь, потом собираются за праздничным столом. В Новый Год замбийцы, как и русские, приглашают родственников,  друзей.

Рождество и Новый Год, праздники, пришедшие с Запада, в Замбии хорошо прижились, так как являются отличным поводом повидаться с близкими. Вообще, культ семьи в Африке развит гораздо сильнее, чем в России. Например, каждый замбийский мужчина обязательно должен обзавестись сыном. Потому что в противном случае дом, выстроенный собственноручно, и все «нажитое непосильным трудом» добро некому будет наследовать. Дочь выходит замуж и становится хозяйкой в доме мужа. И ей даже в голову не придет претендовать на имущество отца.

 – А как в Замбии обстоит дело с елками? Или, может быть, вы пальмы наряжаете?

– В Замбии тоже есть такая традиция – наряжать елки. Как правило их украшают в церквях перед Рождеством – там их специально выращивают. А в домах ставят искусственные елочки – но только богатые семьи.

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Такую огромную новогоднюю елку Юджин в России увидел впервые

Рождественская елка – довольно дорогое удовольствие для жителей бедной африканской страны. По данным 2016 года, 83% населения Замбии находится за чертой бедности. Для рядовых замбийцев основным украшением дома служит праздничный стол.

– В России в Новый Год принято пить шампанское, готовить оливье и селедку под шубой, покупать мандарины. Если мы окажемся за рождественским столом в Замбии, какие блюда нам предложат?

– Самое популярное блюдо на Рождество и на Новый Год у нас – рис или картошка с курицей. Для замбийцев такие продукты считаются деликатесными.

– А что же тогда является обычной едой?

– В будни мы едим ншиму. По виду это блюдо напоминает вашу манную кашу. Ее варят из кукурузной муки. Кукуруза в Замбии – самый распространенный злак. Рис встречается гораздо реже.

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Белая каша на тарелке – это ншима, национальное замбийское блюдо

А на тарелках у этих детишек - праздничная рождественская еда

А в тарелках у этих детишек – праздничная рождественская еда

– А какие-то национальные рождественские напитки есть у вас?

– Мы тоже любим шампанское. Даже непьющие в Новый Год  выпивают бокал. Есть еще национальный напиток в Замбии – называется Качасу. Его настаивают на кукурузе. Он  очень-очень крепкий. Злоупотреблять им не стоит – можно даже ослепнуть.

– То есть здесь наши традиции почти схожи. С боем часов – пьете шампанское (ну, или качасу), кричите ура..

– Да, и запускаем фейерверки.

Замбия наследовала католические традиции, но почему-то не переняла веру в сказочного Санта Клауса. Маленькие замбийцы не пишут письма волшебнику и не находят свертки утром под елкой или в красном чулке.

– Все происходит прозаичнее, – признаются студенты из Замбии, – после праздничного ужина родители сами дарят детям подарки. В основном практичные – одежду или обувь.

А на вопрос, какой рождественский подарок особенно запомнился, как-то впечатлил в детстве, мои собеседники лишь пожимали плечами. Хотя Чичи Пауль, все-таки вспомнил футболку, которая светилась в темноте.

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И все-таки замбийские дети знают про Санта Клауса. В 2009 году президент Замбии в костюме раздавал детям подарки в одном из торговых центров Лусаки, столицы Замбии

Итак, в Замбии не бывает снега (самая низкая температура зимой +9 градусов), чтобы полюбоваться на елку, нужно идти в церковь, и Дед Мороз в Африку не забредает – видимо, слишком жарко ему там. И все же российские школьники, наверное, позавидовали бы замбийским. Каникулы у них длятся с 4 декабря (а иногда и с первого) и по 10 января включительно. За такое удовольствие можно и рисовую кашу в Новый Год поесть!

Три факта о Замбии, которые меня удивили:

– Страна с мягким тропическим климатом и самым мощным и красивейшим водопадом в мире (водопад “Виктория” относится к наследию ЮНЕСКО, он имеет более 100 метров в высоту и более километра в ширину) до сих пор в списке самых бедных стран в Африке.

– В Замбии создан специальный комитет по борьбе с мухой цеце – настолько серьезна там эта проблема. Укус  мухи вызывает  сонную болезнь, вылечить которую крайне сложно. Мухи цеце являются настолько кровожадными насекомыми, что нападают практически на все теплые объекты, даже автомобиль с работающим двигателем. Уберечься от смертельно опасных нападений смогли только зебры, благодаря своей черно-белой окраске, которая по непонятным причинам отпугивает этих насекомых.

– Вождь замбийского племени может оказаться мудрее президента. В 2015 году президент Замбии призвал граждан страны помолиться за восстановление курса национальной валюты — квачи.  В то же время вождь одного из крупнейших племен на северо-западе страны назвал членов правящего Патриотического фронта «идиотами». «Ради чего мы должны молиться и поститься? Ради экономического чуда? Разве Бог наслал на нас эти бедствия?» — заметил он.


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